How is human health affected by climate change?

How is human health affected by climate change?

Climate change – a major health threat to humanity

Climate change is a major health threat to humanity, and health professionals around the world are already responding to the health risks caused by this ongoing crisis.

health threat to humanity

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that to avoid catastrophic health effects and prevent millions of climate-related deaths, the earth should be reduced by a maximum of 1.5 ° C. Past emissions have already made some of the global warming and other climate change inevitable. Global temperatures as high as 1.5 ° C are not considered safe, however; any tithe extra temperature will greatly affect human health and well-being.

Although no one is safe from these dangers, the people whose lives are being threatened first and foremost by the climate crisis are people who have little or no control over their causes, and who are unable to protect themselves and their families against them – the underprivileged. -Income and disadvantaged countries and communities.

The climate crisis threatens to delay the last fifty years of progress in development, global health, and poverty reduction and continues to exacerbate existing health inequalities. It poses a serious threat to the achievement of universal health care (UHC) in a variety of ways – including combining existing disease burdens and increasing existing barriers to accessing health services, often at times when they are most needed. More than 930 million people – about 12 percent of the world’s population – use at least 10% of the home budget to pay for health care. With the poorest people without insurance, health shocks and stress already put an estimated 100 million people in poverty every year, and the effects of climate change are exacerbated by the practice.

Climate-sensitive health hazards

Climate-sensitive health hazards

Climate change has already affected health in many ways, including leading to death and illness from the most common weather events, such as heatwaves, hurricanes and floods, eating disorders, overgrown animal and food habitats, water- and animal-borne diseases, and mental health problems. In addition, climate change undermines many of the social impacts of good health, such as livelihoods, equity, and access to health care and social support structures. These sensitive health risks and the climate are equally expressed by those most at risk and disadvantaged, including women, children, races, poor communities, migrants or the homeless, the elderly, and those with undiagnosed health conditions.

Illustration: An overview of climate-sensitive health risks, their exposure patterns, and risk factors. Climate change affects life directly and indirectly and is strongly influenced by determining environmental, social, and public health factors.

While climate change can no doubt affect human health, it is still a challenge to accurately measure the scale and impact of many climate-sensitive health risks. However, advances in science gradually allow us to predict the increase in morbidity and mortality as a result of man-made global warming and to determine with greater accuracy the risks and risks of these health threats.

In the short to medium term, the health impacts of climate change will be largely determined by the vulnerability of communities, their resilience to the current climate change rate, and the rate and speed of adaptability. Over time, the results will largely depend on how far the change is being taken now to reduce emissions and avoid the violation of dangerous temperatures and potentially reversible areas.

Exposure to communities at risk of heat waves

More info: Effects of climate change § Wave waves. The continuous temperature of a wet bulb above 35 ° C is the limit where the firmness of a person’s systems can no longer adequately cool the skin.

Climate-sensitive health hazards

Another factor that has contributed to global warming is the mass and magnitude of heat waves. The effects of heat waves on people’s lives are often more severe in urban areas, as a result of the “heat island” effect. The effect of the tropical island is that the urban areas experience much higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas. This is due to the wide area of ​​bare tarmac, as well as the many large thermal structures that block the cool air.

A person’s reaction to heat stress can be hyperthermia, fever, and other harmful effects. Fever can be associated with many organs and systems including the brain, heart, kidneys, liver, etc. The heatwaves also caused the chronic kidney disease (CKD) epidemic. Recent research [when?] Has shown that prolonged exposure to heat, physical exertion, and dehydration are sufficient factors in the development of CKD. These conditions occur worldwide in conjunction with heat stress nephropathy.

A 2015 report revealed that the risk of death from chronic lung disease during a wave of heat was 1.8-8.2% higher than the average summer temperature. Heat stress is caused by the loss of fluid, which interferes with the flow of the lungs. In combination with a high concentration of impurities, this leads to inflammation of the bronchi. A 2016 study found in people with moderate to severe pulmonary obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an increase in internal temperature leads to increased respiratory, coughing, and sputum production. A 2009 study, conducted in New York, found a 7.6% increase in hospital admission for patients with COPD in all 1 ° C increases in temperatures above 29 ° C.

Climate-sensitive health hazards

The human body needs evaporating cooling to prevent overheating, even if it has a low level of activity. With high ambient temperatures and humidity during heatwaves sufficient evaporation cooling may be at risk. Even under ideal conditions, continuous exposure to water bulb temperatures above 35 ° C (95 ° F) is fatal. As of 2020, only two weather channels had recorded the temperature of the wet-bulb at 35 ° C, and only briefly, but the frequency and duration of these events are expected to increase with continued climate change. The numbers of adults and those with a related illness are at increased risk for their health due to rising temperatures.

Exposure to extreme heat “becomes a major health risk, for people over the age of 65, the number of people in urban areas, and people with serious health risks”.

A study of 13,115 cities found that the maximum temperature of a wet globe above 30 ° C tripled between 1983 and 2016. A ~ 50% increase when population growth in these cities is ignored. Urban areas and settlements are often much warmer than the surrounding countryside, in part because of the effect of the urban heat.

Heat-related death

Health experts warn that “exposure to extreme heat increases the risk of death from cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory conditions.

Adding access to indoor cooling (air conditioning) will help prevent heat-related deaths but current air conditioning technologies are often unsustainable as they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, high electricity demand, and urban heat islands.

Heat and physical activity

High temperatures can reduce the frequency and duration of exercise and the desire to exercise.

High temperatures can have a profound effect on a person’s body and mental health. These results may also be inaccurate: for example during the last forty years “the number of hours when temperatures were too high for safe exercise” increased with an average loss of 3.7 hours for people in developing countries (low HDI country group).

Change in staff capacity

High temperatures could affect the human ability to work. Workplace heat mainly affects workers in the agricultural sector in developing countries: It is estimated that “295 billion hours of work may be lost due to extreme heat by 2020; 79% of the total losses in developing countries occur in the agricultural sector.

For the fishing and agricultural industries to produce the food they have to depend on the weather. When the climate changes dramatically, it could affect these sectors and the entire U.S. economy. For example, droughts and floods can lead to challenges for the agricultural industry and therefore threaten food security. For example, in the event of a flood, crops can be damaged or food contaminated as floodwaters can carry sewage, germs, and toxins. Overall, “high seasonal temperatures can have a significant impact on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security.”

Heat stress can lead to reduced productivity and participation because workers’ health may be deteriorating due to heat-related health problems. A study conducted by NOAA in 2013 concluded that heat stress would significantly reduce the workforce population under current carbon emissions.