Prediabetes is when the blood sugar level is higher than it should be but not high enough for your doctor to diagnose diabetes. They may call it impaired glucose intolerance or impaired glucose tolerance.
People with type 2 diabetes are more likely to have prediabetes first. But it usually does not cause symptoms. About 84 million people over the age of 20 in the US have prediabetes, but 90% do not know they have it.
Treatment for prediabetes can prevent serious health problems, including type 2 diabetes and problems with your heart, blood vessels, eyes and kidneys.
Table of Contents
Symptoms of Prediabetes
If you have symptoms, you may notice:
- Dryer than usual.
- He urinates a lot.
- Your vision is blurred.
- You are more tired than usual.
Causes and Dangers of Prediabetes
You are more likely to get prediabetes if you:
- They are older, especially those over the age of 45
- Have a waistline larger than 40 inches around if you are a man and 35 inches around if you are a woman.
- Eat plenty of red meat and grains, drink sugary drinks, and do not eat too many fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, or olive oil.
- Blacks, Native Americans, Latinos, or Pacific Islanders
- Are you overweight or obese, especially if you have extra pounds around you (belly fat)
- Have high cholesterol, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and high LDL cholesterol
- Do not exercise
- She was pregnant or had a baby weighing more than 20 pounds [9 kg]
- Have polycystic ovary syndrome
- You have trouble sleeping, such as shortness of breath, or changing shifts at work or night shifts.
Get tested for prediabetes if those things work for you and if:
- Have you ever tested blood sugar abnormally
- Have a heart attack
- Show signs of insulin resistance, which means your body is making insulin but not responding in the way you should. These include dark areas of the skin, focusing on the problem, and fatigue or hunger more than usual.
Diagnosis and diagnosis of Prediabetes
- Your doctor will perform at least one of these tests:
- Fasting for plasma glucose. You will not eat for 8 hours, and then a specialist will take your blood to check your blood sugar levels. The results are:
- Normally your blood sugar level is below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL)
- Prediabetes if your blood sugar is 100 to 125 mg / dL
- Diabetes if your blood sugar is 126 mg / dL or higher
- Oral glucose tolerance tests. First, you will have a plasma sugar test. Then, you will drink something sweet. Two hours later, the specialist will take and examine the extra blood.
The results are:
- It is normal if your blood sugar is below 140 mg / dL after a second test
- Prediabetes if your blood sugar is 140 to 199 mg / dL after the second test
- Diabetes if your blood sugar is 200 mg / dL or higher after a second test
- Hemoglobin A1c assay. This blood test shows your normal blood sugar levels in the last 2 to 3 months. Doctors prescribe it for people with diabetes to see if their blood-sugar level can be controlled. They can also use it to diagnose prediabetes or diabetes.
The results are:
- Normal if it is 5.6% or less
- Prediabetes if 5.7 to 6.4%
- Diabetes if 6.5% or more
You may need to check again to confirm the results.
Children and Prediabetes testing
Doctors diagnose prediabetes based on the same blood sugar levels, regardless of a person’s age. The American Diabetes Association states that children aged 10 and over should be tested for obesity and have:
- A family member with type 2 diabetes
- A mother with diabetes during her pregnancy
- Native American, Black, Spanish, Asian American, or Pacific Islander
- Symptoms of insulin resistance or related conditions, such as low birth weight, high blood pressure, or polycystic ovary syndrome
- If a child with a high risk of developing prediabetes has normal test results, the American Diabetes Association recommends testing it again at least every 3 years.
Without treatment, prediabetes can cause type 2 diabetes or cause other serious problems, including:
- Kidney disease
- High blood pressure
- Neurological disorders (peripheral neuropathy)
- Loss of limb (amputation)
- Treatment of Postpartum Prediabetes
Take these steps to treat prediabetes:
- Eat a healthy diet and lose weight. Losing 5% to 10% of your weight can make a big difference.
- Exercise. Choose something you like, such as walking. Try to get at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week. You can start in a short time and work your way up to half an hour if needed. Check with your doctor before you go any further.
- Stop smoking.
- Control blood pressure and cholesterol.
- Take medicines like metformin (Glucophage) to lower your blood sugar when you are at high risk for diabetes.
Is There a Prediabetes Diet?
There is no official diet, but four variables can slow down prediabetes and reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes:
- Choose whole grains and whole grain products in addition to digested carbohydrates such as white bread, potatoes, and breakfast cereals.
- Drink coffee, water, and tea instead of sugary drinks.
- Choose good fats such as those in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds over those in margarine, baked goods, and fried foods.
- Sell red meat and minced meat to get nuts, whole grains, poultry and fish.
- Prevention of Prediabetes
- Exercising and eating a diet high in carbohydrates, sugars, fats, and low in salt can also help prevent diabetes.
Other tips include:
- Do not smoke.
- Do not drink more than one drink per day.
- Take your diabetes medication as prescribed by your doctor.